Archibald Sayce on the Decipherment of the Hittite Hieroglyphic Texts

Archibald Sayce [1845-1933]Archibald Sayce [1845-1933] was Professor of Assyriology at Oxford University for 28 years. I recently came across offprints of four of his articles from the Royal Asiatic Journal and am pleased to be able to make them available here. They are all in the public domain.

Articles from the Royal Asiatic Journal

Archibald Henry Sayce [1846-1933], “The Origin of the Hebrew Alphabet,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society No. 3 (July 1920): 297-303.

Archibald Henry Sayce [1846-1933], “Geographical Notes,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society No. 1 (Jan. 1921): 47-55.

Archibald Henry Sayce [1846-1933], “The Discipherment of the Hittite Hieroglyphic Texts,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society No. 4 (Oct. 1922): 537-572.

Archibald Henry Sayce [1846-1933], “The Libraries of David and Solomon,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society No. 4 (Oct. 1931): 783-790.

I am developing an on-line bibliography of Archibald Sayce’s works on this page, where you find links more of his books and articles.

The Discipherment of the Hittite Hieroglyphic Texts

There are the same recognized rules for the decipherment of an unknown script as there are for that of an ordinary cipher, and if they can be followed the script can be deciphered with as much ease as the cipher. Sometimes they cannot be followed, sufficient materials being absent; in this case, all we can do is to wait patiently until the materials are forthcoming

At one time this was the case with the so-called Hittite hieroglyphic texts. But it has long ceased to be so. The materials for a scientific decipherment of them have been gradually accumulating, and verification has gone hand in hand with the determination of the value and meaning of the characters. We are no longer dependent upon a few fragmentary inscriptions, too often in so imperfect a condition as to make the forms of the characters upon them more or less uncertain. [Continue reading]

Palestine Exploration Quarterly On-line

Palestine Exploration Quarterly

The Palestine Exploration Quarterly provides a unique record of the early days of archaeology in the Holy land from 1869 onwards. As it is published in the United Kingdom it is covered by the ‘standard life of author + 70 years’ copyright. This means that much of the early material is now in the public domain – though this has to be established by finding out when all the authors died. As this is a time-consuming process and the issues often have pull-out maps, the process of digitisation has been somewhat slower than usual.

I have just added the public domain material from the 1914-1920 issues to the website (click to access the table of contents).

George Adam Smith’s “Jerusalem” (2 Vols) online

George Adam Smith's "Jerusalem"

George Adam Smith’s 2 Volume work Jerusalem. The Topography, Economics and History From The Earliest Times to A.D. 70 is now available in PDF. Both volumes contain some superb photographs and maps dating from the early 1900s.

George Adam Smith [1848-1910]Jerusalem. The Topography, Economics and History From The Earliest Times to A.D. 70, Vol. 1. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1907. Hbk. pp.334. Visit the Download page.

George Adam Smith [1848-1910]Jerusalem. The Topography, Economics and History From The Earliest Times to A.D. 70, Vol. 2. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1907. Hbk. pp.631. Visit the Download page.

General Plan of Jerusalem - in pouch at end of bookParticularly useful is the General Plan of Jerusalem which is in pouch at end of Volume 1 produced by the Palestine Exploration Fund. You will find a 600dpi version along with the files from Volume 1.

Table of Contents Volume I

Preface
Introduction
The Essential City

Book I – The Topography-Sites and Names

I. The Site of the City
II. Facts and Questions in the Ancient Topography
Ill. The Geology
IV. Earthquakes, Springs and Dragons
V. The Waters of Jerusalem

The Rainfall and other Natural Conditions
The Springs-Real and Reputed
The Identification of the Springs
The Reservoirs and Aqueducts
VI. Sion, Ophel and ‘The City Of David’

  1. The Arguments from Topography and Archaeology
  2. The Biblical Evidence as to Sion
  3. History of the Name The ‘Ophel
  4. History of the Name David’s-Burgh or ‘City of David’
  5. The Tradition from Josephus onwards that the ‘City of David’ lay on the South-West Hill
  6. The Return to the East Hill

VII. The Valley of Hinnom
VIII. The Walls of Jerusalem

  1. The Present City Walls
  2. Proofs of the Ancient Walls up to Titus and their Limits
  3. The Historical Evidence
  4. The Evidence of the Excavations
  5. The Three North Walls

IX. The Name Jerusalem and Its History 250
X. Other Names for the City

Book II – The Economics and Politics

I. A General Statement of the Economic Problems
II. The Ethnic and Economic Origins of Jerusalem
III. The City Lands
IV. The Natural Resources of Jerusalem
V. Commerce and Imports
VI. The Royal Revenues: Estates, Tribute, Tithes, Taxation
VII. The Temple Revenues, Properties and Finance
VIII. Trades, Crafts and Industries
IX. Government and Police

  1. Before the Exile
  2. After the Return, 536-444 B.C.
  3. Under Nehemiah, 444-432 B.C.
  4. From Nehemiah to the Maccabees, 431-168 B.C.
  5. The Reconstitution of Israel, 168-142 B.C.
  6. The Hasmonean Dynasty, 142-63 B.C.
  7. Under the Romans from B.C. 63 onwards

X. ‘The Multitude’

General Index to Volume I.
Special Index I.-The Bible and Apocrypha
Special Index II.-Josephus
Special Index III.-Talmudic Literature
List of Abbreviations Used in the Notes

Table of Contents Volume 2

Prefatory Note
Table of the Principal Stages in the History

Book III – The History

I. The Prelude-Abd-Khiba, c. 1400 B.C.
II. The Conquest by David, c. 1000 B.C.
III. Solomon and the Temple, c. 970-933 B.C.
IV. From Rehoboam to Ahaz, c. 933-720 B.C.

  1. Rehoboam, c. 933-917
  2. Abiyah, c. 916-914
  3. Asa, c. 913-873
  4. Jehoshaphat, c. 873-850
  5. Jehoram and Ahaziah, c. 850-842
  6. Jehoram and Ahaziah, c. 850-842
  7. Athaliah, c. 842-836
  8. Joash, c. 836-798
  9. Amaziah, c. 797-789 or 779
  10. Uzziah or Azariah, c. 789 or 779-740
  11. Jotham, Regent from 755 or 750; King 740-735
  12. Ahaz, c. 735-720 (?)

V. Isaiah’s Jerusalem, from 740 Onwards
VI. Hezekiah and Sennacherib, c. 720-685
VII. Jerusalem Under Manasseh, c. 685-640
VIII. Josiah: Jerusalem and Deuteronomy, c. 638-608
IX. Jeremiah’s Jerusalem, c. 625-586
X. The Desolate City, 586-537
XI. The Ideal City and the Real
XII. The Second Temple, From Zechariah to ‘Malachi,’ 516-460
XIII. Ezra and Nehemiah, 458 (?)-431 B.C.
XIV. The Rest of the Persian Period, 431-332 B.C.
XV. The Jew and the Greek, 332-168 B.C.

  1. Before Alexander the Great
  2. Alexander and the Jews
  3. Wars of the Ptolemies and Seleucids for Palestine
  4. Jerusalem and J udah under the Greeks
  5. The New Jewish Diaspora
  6. Spiritual Intercourse of Jews and Greeks
  7. The Reaction against Hellenism
  8. The Jewish Factions and Antiochus Epiphanes

XVI. Jerusalem Under the Maccabees and the Hasmoneans, 168-38 B.C.
XVII. Herod, the Romans and Jerusalem, 37-4 B.C.
XVIII. Herod’s Castle and Temple
XIX. The Temple and the Lord
XX. Jerusalem of the Gospels

Appendix
General Index
Special Index I. – The Bible and Apocrypha
Special Index II. – Josephus
Special Index III – Talmudic Literature

Sayce’s Archaeology & the Cuneiform Inscriptions

Archibald Henry Sayce [1846-1933], The Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscriptions

Archibald Henry Sayce [1846-1933], The Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscriptions
Reverse of a Tablet in the Hittite Language from Boghaz Keui [frontispiece]
The following book by noted archaeologist Archibald H. Sayce is now available for free download in PDF:

Archibald Henry Sayce [1846-1933], The Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscriptions, 2nd edn. London: Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, 1908. Hbk. pp.220. Download Complete book [4.22MB]

The book contains many excellent illustrations, which I have made available at various resolutions.

Contents

Preface

1. The Decipherment of the Cuneiform Inscriptions

2. The Archaeological Materials; The Excavations at Susa and the Origin of Bronze

3. The Sumerians

4. The Relation of Babylonian to Egyptian Civilisation

5. Babylonia and Palestine

6. Asia Minor

7. Canaan in the Century Before the Exodus

Index

City of Jerusalem by Conder

Tomb West of Calvary outside JerusalemThe following public domain book is now available for free download in PDF:

C.R. Conder [1848-1910], The City of Jerusalem. London: John Murray, 1909. Hbk. pp.334.

Col. Claude R. Conder, a British Soldier seconded to the Palestine Exploration Fund (1875-78, 1881-82) writes about the history of of Jerusalem calling on his own experiences exploring the city.

The City of Jerusalem

Chapter 1

Introductory

I first set eyes on Jerusalem one summer morning in 1872. The view – a mile away – of the long grey wall, the cypress trees of the Armenian garden, and the single minaret at the west gate, was not then obstructed by the row of Jewish cottages since built. The population was only about a third of what it now is. The railway station was not thought of, and only a few villas outside the gate existed, while the suburbs to north and south had not grown up, and Olivet was not covered with modern buildings. I passed two winters (1873-5) in the city, the second in a house in the Jews’ quarter, and later on (1881-2) a third winter at the hotel; and during these visits my time was mainly occupied in wandering among the less-known corners of the town. It was a period very favourable for exploration. The survey by Sir Charles Wilson, the researches of de Vogue, and the wonderful excavations of Sir Charles Warren, were then recent. The German Emperor, William I., had just ordered the clearing out of the eastern half of the great square of St. John’s Hospital, having been given by the Sultan the site of Charlemagne’s hospice beside the Church of St Mary Latin. In 1874 Mr. Henry Maudeslay was exploring the ancient scarps at the south-west corner of the Hebrew city; and, by the Sultan’s order, the Dome of the Rock-deconsecrated for a time-was being repaired, while other excavations were in progress outside the city on the north. I was thus able to walk in my socks all over the surface of the sacred Sakhrah “rock,” and to ascend the scaffolding to the dome above, in order to examine the ancient mosaics of our seventh century, as well as those on the outside, where the old arcaded battlement of the ninth century was just laid bare. I penetrated, by the old rock-cut aqueduct at the north-west corner of the Haram, to the Herodian wall, and discovered the buttresses of the Temple rampart still standing, and just like those at Hebron. In the Jews’ quarter I found the old hospice of the Teutonic Order, and the chapel of the Holy Ghost….

Click here to continue reading.

Robert H. Kennett on Ancient Hebrew Social Life and Custom

The following public domain Schweich lectures are now available on-line in PDF:

Robert H. Kennett [1864-1932], Ancient Hebrew Social Life and Custom as Indicated in Law, Narrative and Metaphor. The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy 1931. London: Oxford University Press, 1933. Hbk. pp.114.

Click <<HERE>> for the download link.

You can see the full list of the Schweich lectures here.

T. Eric Peet’s Comparative Study of the Literatures of Egypt, Palestine, and Mesopotamia

Papyrus Ani curs hiero  [Public Domain image - source Wikipedia]
Papyrus Ani curs hiero
[Public Domain image – source Wikipedia]
The following Schwiech Lectures are now available on-line in PDF:

T. Eric Peet [1882-1934], A Comparative Study of the Literatures of Egypt, Palestine, and Mesopotamia: Egypt’s Contribution to the Literature of the Ancient World. The Schweich Lectures 1929. London: Oxford University Press, 1931. Hbk. 136.

Click <<HERE>> to visit the download page.

Israel Abrahams on the Campaigns in Palestine from Alexander the Great

The following Schweich Lectures is now available on-line in PDF:

Israel Abrahams [1858-1925], Campaigns in Palestine from Alexander the Great. Schweich Lectures 1922. London: Oxford University Press, 1927. Hbk. pp.55.

Click <<HERE>> for the download link.

The book has a couple of useful illustrations which I have uploaded in various resolutions so that they can be re-used. This material is now Public Domain.

C.H.W. Johns on The Relations between the Laws of Babylonia and the Laws of the Hebrew Peoples

Prologue Hammurabi Code Louvre AO10237
[Public Domain photo source: Wikipedia]

I am pleased to announce that the following book is now online:

C.H.W. Johns [1857-1920], The Relations between the Laws of Babylonia and the Laws of the Hebrew Peoples. The Schweich Lectures 1912. London: Oxford University Press, 1914. Hbk. pp.96. [This material is in the Public Domain]

Click <<HERE>> to visit the download page.